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Endometriosis & Fertility!

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#ATGSeminar

Theme: Endometriosis & Fertility!

#AtgEndometriosis

Topic: Notes on Endometriosis ( Intro, Causes, Risk factors and Symptoms )

Introduction

This is an often very painful disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your (womb) called the endometrium grows outside your womb instead. This condition can involve any pelvic organs, but most commonly involves your ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue lining your pelvis. Rarely, it may also spread beyond pelvic organs.

With endometriosis, displaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it normally would (it thickens, breaks down and bleeds with each menstrual cycle). Because this displaced tissue has no way to leave your body, it becomes trapped thus leading to painful symptoms. When endometriosis involves the ovaries, cysts called endometriomas may form. Surrounding tissue can become irritated, eventually developing scar tissue and adhesions — abnormal bands of fibrous tissue that can cause pelvic tissues and organs to stick to each other. This is a very painful condition. Endometriosis can cause pain, sometimes severe especially during your period. Fertility problems also may develop. Fortunately, effective treatments are available.

Endometriosis is sometimes mistaken for other conditions that can cause pelvic pain, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or ovarian cysts. It may be confused with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a condition that causes bouts of diarrhea, constipation and abdominal cramping. IBS can accompany endometriosis, which can complicate the diagnosis.

Causes

The exact cause of endometriosis is not certain, however there are possible explanations which include:

1● Retrograde menstruation. This happens, when menstrual blood containing endometrial cells flows back through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity instead of out of the body. These displaced endometrial cells stick to the pelvic walls and surfaces of pelvic organs, where they grow and continue to thicken and bleed over the course of each menstrual cycle.

2● Transformation of peritoneal cells. In what’s known as the “induction theory,” experts propose that hormones or immune factors promote transformation of peritoneal cells, cells that line the inner side of your abdomen into endometrial cells.

3● Embryonic cell transformation. Hormones such as estrogen may transform embryonic cells — cells in the earliest stages of development — into endometrial cell implants during puberty.

4● Surgical scar implantation. After a surgery, such as a hysterectomy or C-section, endometrial cells may attach to a surgical incision.

5● Endometrial cells transport. The blood vessels or tissue fluid (lymphatic) system may transport endometrial cells to other parts of the body.

6● Immune system disorder. It’s possible that a problem with the immune system may make the body unable to recognize and destroy endometrial tissue that’s growing outside the uterus

Risk factors

Several factors place you at greater risk of developing endometriosis, such as:

♤ Never giving birth

♤ Starting your period at an early age

♤ Going through menopause at an older age

♤ Short menstrual cycles — for instance, less than 27 days

♤ Having higher levels of estrogen in your body or a greater lifetime exposure to estrogen your body produces

♤ Low body mass index ( BMI)

♤ Alcohol consumption

♤ One or more relatives (mother, aunt or sister) with endometriosis

♤ Any medical condition that prevents the normal passage of menstrual flow out of the body

♤ Uterine abnormalities

Endometriosis usually develops several years after the onset of menstruation (menarche). Signs and symptoms of endometriosis end temporarily with pregnancy and end permanently with menopause, unless you’re taking estrogen.

People may experience (Symptoms):

♧ The most common symptom is severe pelvic pains in the lower abdomen, lower back, pelvis, rectum, or vagina

♧ Pain circumstances: can occur during sexual intercourse or while defecating.

♧ Also, although many women experience cramping during their menstrual period, women with endometriosis typically describe menstrual pain that’s far worse than usual

♧ Menstrual: heavy menstruation, irregular menstruation, painful menstruation, or spotting

♧ Gastrointestinal: constipation or nausea

♧ Abdominal: abdominal fullness or cramping

♧ Infertility: Endometriosis is first diagnosed in some women who are seeking treatment for infertility.

Thank you

Chuk Ufondu. MBBS, MPH , CPH

Reference & Photo Credit

◇ Mayo Clinics

◇ Www.draxe.com

#Treatment

Coming Soon!

Epidural Anaesthesia in Labour

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#ATGEpiduralAnesthesia

Topic: Epidural Anesthesia: The New Normal In Child Birth?

#Overview

Currently this is the most popular and trending method of pain relief during labor.

Alarmingly women request an epidural by name more than any other method of pain relief.

Current data shows that more than 50%of women giving birth at hospitals in the US use epidural anesthesia.

It is important to have basic knowledge about this procedure. For expecting women who will prefer this option, please it is pertinent to prepare yourself for “labor day,”.

I will implore you to try and learn as much as possible about pain relief options so that you will be better prepared to make informed decisions prior to and during the labor and birth process.

There are different types of epidurals, how they are administered, and their benefits and risks. Knowing all these will help you in your decision-making during the course of labor and delivery.

#Definition

● So, What is epidural anesthesia?

This is simply a regional ( localized) anesthesia ( pain killer) that blocks pain in a particular region of the body. The goal of an epidural is to provide analgesia, or pain relief, rather than anesthesia,which leads to total lack of feeling.

Please note,epidurals block the nerve impulses from the lower spinal segment( the part when the baby will be born from). This results in decreased sensation in the lower half of the body.

Epidural medications fall into a class of drugs called local anesthetics.

They are often delivered in combination with opioids or narcotics ( strong pain killers) in order to decrease the required dose of local anesthetic.

This produces pain relief with minimal effects. These medications may be used in combination with other medications to. stabilize the mother’s blood pressure.

#Benefits

● What are the benefits of epidural anesthesia?

1.Allows you to rest if your labor is prolonged.By reducing the discomfort of childbirth, some woman have a more positive birth experience.

2. Normally, an epidural will allow you to remain alert and be an active participant in your birth.

3. If you deliver by cesarean, an epidural anesthesia will allow you to stay awake and also provide effective pain relief during recovery.

4.When other types of coping mechanisms are no longer helping, an epidural can help you deal with exhaustion, irritability, and fatigue.

5. An epidural can allow you to rest, relax, get focused, and give you the strength to move forward as an active participant in your birth experience.

Please note, the use of epidural anesthesia during childbirth is continually being refined, and much of its success depends on the skill with which it is administered.

#Risks

● What are the risks of epidural anesthesia?

1. Epidurals may cause your blood pressure to suddenly drop. For this reason your blood pressure will be routinely checked to help ensure an adequate blood flow to your baby. If there is a sudden drop in blood pressure, you may need to be treated with IV fluids, medications, and oxygen.

2. You may experience a severe headache caused by leakage of spinal fluid.

3. After your epidural is placed, you will need to alternate sides while lying in bed and have continuous monitoring for changes in fetal heart rate. Lying in one position can sometimes cause labor to slow down or stop.

4. You might experience the following side effects: shivering, ringing of the ears, backache, soreness where the needle is inserted, nausea, or difficulty urinating.

5. You might find that your epidural makes pushing more difficult and additional medications or interventions may be needed such forceps or cesarean.

6. For a few hours after the birth the lower half of your body may feel numb. Numbness will require you to walk with assistance.

7. In rare instances, permanent nerve damage may result in the area where the catheter was inserted.

8. Though research is somewhat ambiguous, most studies suggest that some babies will have trouble “latching on” causing breastfeeding difficulties.

9. Other studies suggest that a baby might experience respiratory depression, fetal malpositioning, and an increase in fetal heart rate variability, thus increasing the need for forceps, vacuum, cesarean deliveries.

Thank you.

Dr. Chudi Godsons

Citations , References & Photo Credit

● American Pregnancy Association

● Mayo Clinic

●https://myhealth.alberta.ca/Health.

●https://medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations

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Come Join us @ Ask The Gynecologist Group [ ATG]

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Lower BACK PAIN

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#ATGLowerBACKPAIN

Theme : Common Causes Of Lower Back Ache And Tips On Relief.

1. Injuries to the soft-tissue at the lower back.

2. Kidney stones

3. Discs problems

4 Compression of nerve roots,

5. Joint problems

6. Torn or pulled muscle and/or ligament.

7.An abnormal curvature of the spine

8. Vertebral fractures

Try these e tips to prevent or ease lower back pain

1. Practice good posture whenever you sit or stand.

2. When lifting something, lift with your knees, not with your back.

3.Do exercises to strengthen the muscles that support your back ,especially the abdominal , hips, back, and pelvic area. Developing strong core muscles can make a big difference in how you feel.

4. Fight the urge to crawl into bed whenever your lower back acts up. “Our bodies are meant to be used, WALK IT OUT. Talk a brisk lil walk

5. See your doctor and get treated for low back pain early on, so you can stay moving and keep active.

Thank you.

Dr. Chudi Godsons

Photo Credit

WebMD.

Food in Pregnancyu

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#ATGFoodInPregnancy

Topic: Food Cravings & Aversions During Pregnancy

Overview

For some pregnant ladies, this is a common happenstance, all of a sudden, you notice you have special cravings for a particular food and a repulsion and aversion for some foods you previously enjoyed. Don’t freak out, you are not alone. This is one of the perks of this

beautiful journey called pregnancy.

WHAT ARE FOOD CRAVINGS DURING PREGNANCY?

This is defined as the sudden urge/crave for a particular/specific, mostly and particularly unusual dish. This is very common among pregnant woman and some fathers.

WHAT ARE FOOD AVERSIONS DURING PREGNANCY?

Just like the cravings, most pregnant women experience at least one food aversion, or a new sense of repulsion at the very thought of a food they previously enjoyed. This is completely normal and very common.

SO, WHAT CAUSES THEM?

During pregnancy, there are hormonal changes that take place; it is believed that pregnancy hormones play a role, especially in early pregnancy.

This is because; this is when the body is positively flooded with hormones. The cravings and aversions are probably the way the body tries to balance out and get use to the changes.

It is also claimed that during pregnancy, you crave what your body needs and are repulsed by what’s not good for you. This theory works with items such as coffee and alcohol, which can suddenly turn off regular drinkers of both.

However, this theory doesn’t explain why you might suddenly turn your nose up at healthy foods you used to love, such as salad or oatmeal.

FACTS YOU NEED TO KNOW:

There is nothing much you can do about your hormones, you don’t control them, and rather they control you. Truth is you can’t always fight this symptom, so just try to respond to cravings and aversions with reason. You should be mindful of the calorific contents of the foods you crave for and also be sure you are getting the recommended adequate diet for you and your baby.

Keep in mind that most disappear or lessen by the fourth month, however if yours don’t, that may be an indication of an emotional need you should address. Talk to your partner: If what you really crave is some more TLC, he should be able to help out with extra hugs and attention.

TIPS ON DEALING WITH CRAVINGS AND Aversions

1. Try to avoid going crazy with pregnancy cravings that do nothing for you nutritionally even while you indulge them. Be in charge. Tame your gut. Don’t go about binging. For example, go for a mini chocolate bar instead of a king-sized, or a glass of low-fat chocolate milk rather 4 glasses of whole fat milk

2. When cravings strike and threaten, stand your ground, use diversion tactics, and find another distracting thing to indulge in.

3. Take a walk or go to the gym

4. Even reading a book or calling a friend for a chat may take your mind off that glazed doughnut that’s calling your name

5. Give in to your cravings once in a while (though not for alcohol NEVER!), then eat well for the rest of the day.

6.Call your practitioner/Doctor/Care giver if you crave weird substances such as clay, ashes, or laundry starch. This craving, known as pica, may be a sign of a nutritional deficiency, particularly of iron. BE MINDFUL OF THIS. IT IS VERY COMMON

7. If food aversions/repulsions during pregnancy are limiting your food intake, look for substitutes for the healthy foods you can’t stomach right now. Also talk to your doctor about the challenge and he/she will have options to help you.

Above all, enjoy the journey.. This too shall pass!

Dr. Chuk Ufondu. MBBS, MPH , CPH

Citations & Credits

1. Www.pregnancyandbaby.com.

2. Www.georgesmedical.com.

3. Www.captainfussybuckets.com.

♨️♨️Subscribe to Africa’s 🌍1st online Gynae forum today to discuss maternal health issues.

Click to be a member: https://www.facebook.com/groups/askthegynaecologist/

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Cervical Erosion

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Cervical Erosion

#ATGcervicalerosion

#ATGcervicalectopy

Cervical erosion is ‘cervical ectopy’.

It is a condition in which cells that normally line the inside of the cervical canal extend on to the surface of the cervix.

Normally, the inside of the cervical canal is lined with a group of cells described as columnar epithelium and the outside with squamous epithelium.

These connect at the squamo-columnar junction.

In cervical erosion, the columnar epithelium may extend further down ad protrude on the surface of the cervical os and onto the vaginal portion of cervix.

It may also undergo squamous metaplasia and transform to stratified squamous epithelium.

Causes of cervical erosion

*Estrogen level

Due to changes in the level of estrogen, usually to high levels of circulationg estrogen in the body which could be high at different times in a woman’s life, for example ;

1. During pregnancy : it could cause some light vaginal bleeding ( per vaginam bleeding). This could occurs during sexual intercourse when the penis touches the tip of the cervix.

In most case this erosion disappears spontaneously 3 – 6 months after childbirth.2. Women on birth control: All brith control pills contain estrogen and progesterone hormones in various concentrations/strengths. Cervical erosion has been found to more common in women taking pills with a high level of estrogen.

3. Cervical erosion is found in at least 1/3rd of all female babies, it is usual due maternal estrogen that the babies are subjected to while still in the womb.

The erosion disappears in early childhood as the influence decreases.

4. HRT (hormone replacement therapy) mainly consists of replacement of estrogen in the body through pills, patches, creams etc.

This estrogen can cause cervical erosion

5. Infection : that infection is the cause of cervical erosion is slowly losing ground. Evidence is increasing that infection does not cause cervical erosion but it is rather the other way around – the changed cells of cervical erosion are more susceptible to various bacteria and yeast and tends to get infected very easily. So cervical erosion and cervical infections are often seen together, leading to the belief that infection causes cervical erosion.

* Miscellaneous CausesIt is believed by many that chronic infection of the vagina, vaginal douching and chemical contraceptions like anti-sperm gels can change the normal level of acidity of the vagina and cause cervical erosion. But these theories are yet to be proved.

Edited from Gynaeonline: cervical erosion

Dr Alalade jidoba.com

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#doctorsweysabi

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Dental Health & Pregnancy

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#ATGDentalHealth

Topic: Dental Health & Pregnancy

#Overview

A thorough dental exam before you conceive is as important as an overall medical check-up.

During pregnancy, you are at greater risk of certain dental problems, the most common of these is periodontal disease, also known as gum disease. Because of the hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy, your immune system becomes hypersensitive to the bacteria in dental plaque. So, when you have a problem, it’s likely to develop and deteriorate at a much greater rate than it would at any other time.

So, if you are planning a pregnancy, or have just found out you are pregnant it is wise to get your gums checked out to ensure there are no existing problems already, because periodontal disease can really accelerate throughout a pregnancy.

The other thing that’s important to know is that if you do develop gum disease during your pregnancy it can affect your baby because bacteria can be transmitted into your amniotic fluid. Researchers have found periodontal pathogens in amniotic fluid and placentas, which can lead to a greater risk of pre-eclampsia or a low birth weight for the baby. From your baby’s point of view, it’s a good idea for mum to have a healthy smile.

When the baby is born DNA testing has shown that 95% of the bacteria actually comes from Mum. This means that if you have any of those nasty bacteria that can cause infection, be it gum disease, tooth cavities or any other form of infection in the mouth, then you’ve got a very high chance of passing them on to your baby.

Dental X-Rays – Get a checkup before you fall pregnant

Another reason to be on top of your dental care when thinking about starting a family is to do with the use of X-Rays during pregnancy.

Even though dental X-Rays (particularly the Digital X-Rays we use at our practice) are a fraction of the radiation dosage of medical X-Rays, most people want to avoid any unnecessary exposure if they can. So, it is wise that you have your teeth examined and X-Rayed before you fall pregnant, so that if there are any cavities present you can deal with them before they become a problem during your pregnancy.

Is It Safe To Go To the Dentist During Pregnancy?

In between trips to the doctor, hospital tours and setting up the nursery, don’t let visiting the dentist fall off your pregnancy to-do list before your baby comes. Getting a checkup during pregnancy is safe and important for your dental health. Not only can you take care of cleanings and procedures like cavity fillings before your baby is born, but your dentist can help you with any pregnancy-related dental symptoms you might be experiencing.

The American Dental Association, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics all encourage women to get dental care while pregnant. “It is a crucial period of time in a woman’s life and maintaining oral health is directly related to good overall health,” says Aharon Hagai, D.M.D.

Here are some common concerns women have about going to the dentist during pregnancy.

When to Tell Your Dentist You Are Pregnant

Even if you only think you might be pregnant, let your dental office know. Tell them how far along you are when you make your appointment. Also let your dentist know about the medications you are taking or if you have received any special advice from your physician. If your pregnancy is high-risk or if you have certain medical conditions, your dentist and your physician may recommend that some treatments be postponed.

How Pregnancy Will Affect Your Mouth?

Although many women make it nine months with no dental discomfort, pregnancy can make some conditions worse – or create new ones. Regular checkups and good dental health habits can help keep you and your baby healthy.

Pregnancy Gingivitis

Your mouth can be affected by the hormonal changes you will experience during pregnancy. For example, some women develop a condition known as “pregnancy gingivitis,” an inflammation of the gums that can cause swelling and tenderness. Your gums also may bleed a little when you brush or floss. Left untreated, gingivitis can lead to more serious forms of gum disease. Your dentist may recommend more frequent cleanings to prevent this.

Increased Risk of Tooth Decay

Pregnant women may be more prone to cavities for a number of reasons. If you’re eating more carbohydrates than usual, this can cause decay. Morning sickness can increase the amount of acid your mouth is exposed to, which can eat away at the outer covering of your tooth (enamel).

Brushing twice a day and flossing once can also fall by the wayside during pregnancy for many reasons, including morning sickness, a more sensitive gag reflex, tender gums and exhaustion. It’s especially important to keep up your routine, as poor habits during pregnancy have been associated with premature delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, gestational diabetes and preeclampsia.

Pregnancy Tumors

In some women, overgrowths of tissue called “pregnancy tumors” appear on the gums, most often during the second trimester. It is not cancer but rather just swelling that happens most often between teeth. They may be related to excess plaque. They bleed easily and have a red, raw-looking raspberry-like appearance. They usually disappear after your baby is born, but if you are concerned, talk to your dentist about removing them.

Medications

Be sure your dentist knows what, if any, prescription medications and over-the-counter drugs you are taking. This information will help your dentist determine what type of prescription, if any, to write for you. Your dentist can consult with your physician to choose medications—such as pain relievers or antibiotics—you may safely take during the pregnancy. Both your dentist and physician are concerned about you and your baby, so ask them any questions you have about medications they recommend.

Thank you

Culled , Adapted from the references below

http://www.todaysdentistry.com.au

http://www.mouthhealthy.org

HPV Infection in Men: Emphasis on Genital Warts

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#ATGMensCorner

Ok.. This one is for ALL the good male members of the group! You cant talk about women’s health without a worthy mention of men’s health

Topic: HPV Infection in Men: Emphasis on Genital Warts

#Intro

HPV is a virus called Human Papilloma Virus. It can be contracted during unprotected sexual intercourse. HPV is a silent and potentially deadly virus and is common, or example in the US, more than half of men who are sexually active will have HPV at some time in their life. However, please note, carefully in some men, this virus will clear on his own, with no health problems.

#Risks

What are the risks of HPV Infection in Men

Some forms of HPV infection are associated with genital cancers and the anus . Both of these cancer types are rare, especially in men with a healthy immune system.

Please note, the risk of anal cancer is about 17 times higher in sexually active gay and bisexual men than in men who have sex only with women. Also, in men with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), they are also at higher risk of getting this cancer.

#Symptoms

What are the Symptoms of HPV in Men

• It can present with no symptoms, especially the types that can cause cancer.

• Genital warts are the first symptom you may see with low-risk HPV strains that cause warts but not cancer.

#Treatment

What is the treatment Genital Warts?

Generally, warts in men can be treated with

• Prescription creams at home.

• Surgically remove

• Freeze off the warts.

Please note, early treatment of warts is discouraged by some doctors because genital warts can go away on their own. It can also take time for all warts to appear. So a person who treats warts as soon as they appear may need another treatment later on.

#Vaccines

Can Vaccines Prevent HPV and Warts

Yes!

In 2009, a unique HPV vaccine was approved for boys and men ages 9 to 26 years. This vaccine is called Gardasil and was formerly approved for use in females in 2006. This vaccine can prevent genital warts caused by two HPV strains: HPV 6 and HPV 11. In late 2010, Gardasil was also approved for the prevention of anal cancer.

#FinalWord.

Have sex responsibly, practice safe sex!

Thank you.

Dr. Chudi Godsons

Reference & Photo Credit

WebMD

ePainAssist

Stillbirth

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#ATGStillBirth

Topic: After StillBirth, What Next?

#Case

Hi Dr Chudi, good day. Sorry to bother you please, I just have a quick question. First off, I want to thank you for your relentless effort and dedication to the ‘ask the gynecologist’ group. You truly are a blessing. So, I had a still birth delivery 3weeks ago which was diagnosed to be due to placental abruption. Please I want to know, how long do I need to wait b4 taking in again, and what’s d risk of it happening again? Thanks, in anticipation to your reply

#Response

A stillbirth is defined as a baby born dead (intrauterine death) after 24 completed weeks of pregnancy! This is a very painful event! Very painful!

On the other hand, any baby that dies before 24 completed weeks, is termed a miscarriage or late fetal loss. Stillbirth is fairly more common than many people think. Stillbirth occurs in about 1 in 160 pregnancies. Most stillbirths occur before labor, whereas a small percentage occur during labor and delivery.

#Cause

What might be the cause of stillbirth?

• Placental Problems (Placenta abruptio, placenta previa)

• Pregnancy induced hypertension

• Birth Defects: Chromosomal disorders account for 15-20% of all stillborn babies

• Growth Restriction: Babies who are small or not growing at an appropriate rate are at risk of death from asphyxia (lack of oxygen) both before and during birth, and from unknown causes.

• Infections: Bacterial infections between 24 and 27 weeks gestation can cause fetal deaths. These infections usually go unnoticed by the mother and may not be diagnosed until they cause serious complications.

• Other infrequent causes of stillbirth include: umbilical cord accidents, trauma, maternal diabetes, high blood pressure and postdate pregnancy (a pregnancy that lasts longer than 42 weeks)

#Risks

Risk Factors

1. Are obese. If you’re obese,

2. Multiple pregnancy

3. Age, common from 35 years and above

4. Have a medical condition like diabetes or low or high blood pressure

5. Have never given birth before

6. Had a miscarriage or stillbirth in a past pregnancy, or you had a baby who died in the first 28 days of life (called neonatal death)

7. Had complications in a past pregnancy, like premature birth, preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction

8. Smoke, use street drugs, take prescription painkillers or drink alcohol during pregnancy

9. Are black. Black women have a higher risk for stillbirth compared to other women.

#NextStep

How soon to try again after stillbirth?

First of all, let me make a factual statement, “Most women who have a stillbirth and get pregnant again later can have a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby.”

Please follow the given advice below

1. You MUST do one thing, give yourself time to heal physically and emotionally and spiritually. You MUST talk to your provider about what’s right for you.

2. You MUST follow up with your provider to figure out why it happened in the first place. He/ She will conduct medical tests to try to find out more about what caused your stillbirth.

3. Please you MUST receive full report of the test and must be certified ok by your doctor, before you can try again.

4. After the tests, if you had a stillbirth that was caused by a genetic condition, a genetic counselor can help you understand the chances of having another stillbirth. A genetic counselor is a person who is trained to help you understand about how genes, birth defects and other medical conditions run in families, and how they can affect your health and your baby’s health.

Your health care provider can help you find a genetic counselor. This is very important!

Thank you and good luck.

References & Photo Credit

March Of Dimes

Making Everything Easier

Genital Warts, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) & Cancers (The Connections)

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#ATGWarts

#ATGHPV

#ATGCancers

Topic: Genital Warts, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) & Cancers (The Connections)

What Are Genital Warts?

These are a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by certain strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV). These are skin growths in the genitalia and can cause pain, discomfort, and itching. These growths are especially dangerous for women because some types of HPV can also cause cervical cancer.

Genital warts usually appear as a small bump or group of bumps in the genital area. They can be small or large, raised or flat, or shaped like a cauliflower. A healthcare provider can usually diagnose warts by looking at the genital area. Genital warts affect both women and men, but women are more vulnerable to complication

What is Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)?

This is by far, the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. The good news, some health effects caused by HPV can be prevented with vaccines. This virus is so common that nearly all sexually active people get it at some point in their lives. There are however, many different types of HPV and some types can cause health problems including genital warts and cancers.

In the US, the CDC now recommends 11 to 12 year olds get two doses of HPV vaccine—rather than the previously recommended three doses—to protect against cancers caused by HPV. The second dose should be given 6-12 months after the first dose.

How is HPV spread? Transmission mode?

1. Via sexual practices like having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has the virus.

2. It is most commonly spread during vaginal or anal sex.

3. HPV can be passed even when an infected person has no signs or symptoms.

4. Anyone who is sexually active can get HPV, even if you have had sex with only one person.

5. You also can develop symptoms years after you have sex with someone who is infected.

6. This makes it hard to know when you first became infected.

So, Does HPV always cause health problems?

Well, generally yes, in most cases, however in some people, it goes away on its own and does not cause any health problems. But when HPV does not go away, it can cause health problems like genital warts and cancer.

Does HPV/ Genital Warts Cause Cancer?

Yes! Some types of HPV can cause cervical and other cancers including cancer of the vulva, vagina, penis, or anus. It can also cause cancer in the back of the throat, including the base of the tongue and tonsils (called oropharyngeal cancer).

Please, note, cancer often takes years, even decades, to develop after a person gets HPV. The types of HPV that can cause genital warts are not the same as the types of HPV that can cause cancers.

There is no way to know which people who have HPV will develop cancer or other health problems. People with weak immune systems (including those with HIV/AIDS) may be less able to fight off HPV. They may also be more likely to develop health problems from HPV.

So, Who Should Get Vaccinated?

1. All boys and girls ages 11 or 12 years should get vaccinated.

2. Catch-up vaccines are recommended for males through age 21 and for females through age 26, if they did not get vaccinated when they were younger.

3. The vaccine is also recommended for gay and bisexual men (or any man who has sex with a man) through age 26.

4. It is also recommended for men and women with compromised immune systems (including those living with HIV/AIDS) through age 26, if they did not get fully vaccinated when they were younger.

Thank you.

Dr. Chudi Godsons

References, Culled, Adapted and Photo Credit

• CDC

• Mayo Clinic

• WebMD

Slide Share

Women’s Age and Conception

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#ATGAgeAndConception

Topic: Women’s Age and Conception

Question

When is the best age for a woman to have all her babies?

#Overview

Before, I start, I MUST pause to make some important statements.

1. There is a huge difference between what is ideal naturally and physiologically and what is obtainable in our modern day society.

2. There are so many factors involved in conception, these factors are called social determinants, and some can be helpful, while others can be harmful.

3. Every woman is wired differently, what might work for A, might be a colossal failure for B. Women are wired differently.

4. Biological expectations/ recommendations is not in tandem with modern day realities.

#Discussion.

The late teens or early twenties are “best” biologically time to have all your babies, this is according to John Mirowsky, a sociologist at the University of Texas at Austin USA.

The reasons are as follows:

· Late teens or early twenties is the period, when “oocytes (eggs) are fresh and the body’s reproductive and other systems are at a youthful peak.

· Normally, women in their twenties are least likely to have developed chronic health problems that would put them or their babies at risk, and they have the lowest rates of miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth, and infertility.

· However, according to this subject matter specialist, early pregnancy doesn’t work well in today’s society, which is organized around smaller families and more full-time employment for women.

· Normally, if pregnancy occurs too early, social difficulties often follow. At age 20 or younger.

· At late teen or early twenties, pregnancy is “more likely to happen out of wedlock, more likely to interfere with educational attainment, and more likely to crystallize a disadvantaged status.

Final word.

· Whenever you are blessed with your partner, start, let that period be your morning time.

· Be sure to consult with your Family doctor, see your gynecologist

· If you are 35 years and above, please keep trying, if after 6 months, you are not successful, please ask your doctor to refer you to a fertility specialist.

· If you are below 35 years, please try for a period of one year, and if not successful please ask your doctor to refer you to a fertility specialist.

· In summary, from scientific and biological point of view, there are known long-term health issues when you have your babies late, most women in this category tend to have complications.

· So, while having a first baby at age 34 might be fine, it is generally recommended you have a last baby before age 35.

Thank you.

Dr. Chudi Godsons

References & Photo Credit

http://www.huffingtonpost.com

NPR

Adapted from Twentysomething: Why Do Young Adults Seem Stuck? by Robin Marantz Henig and Samantha Henig, Hudson Street Press, Penguin Group (USA) Inc. Copyright © 2012 by Robin Marantz Henig and Samantha Henig.

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